Hello,



  • This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.
EECO2 Privacy Policy

Latest News

EECO2 SHORTLISTED FOR CIBSE BUILDING PERFORMANCE AWARD 2020

Posted on

EECO2 is proud to announce that it has been shortlisted for a 2020 CIBSE Building Performance Award, in the Building Performance Consultancy of the Year (up to 50 employees) category. 

The judges look into a range of criteria when selecting finalists, including examples of innovation, knowledge transfer and client feedback. A lot of the EECO2 information provided was based around Case Studies of past work, as this shows the judges just how successful EECO2 projects are.

The EECO2 team have their fingers crossed for the awards in February!

“Join us at the Awards ceremony to celebrate achievements across the industry in building performance and network with over 700 high profile professionals working in the built environment.”

The awards take place on Tuesday 11 February 2020, 19:00 at JW Marriott Grosvenor House, Park Lane, London.



To view the shortlist of the CIBSE Building Performance Awards, click here.

More about the awards:
The Awards showcase the highest achievements in building performance across the construction and property industry.  These are the only awards in the built environment sector that are judged on actual, in-use performance rather than projections or designed performance. The 2020 Awards focus on all aspects of a project, product or innovation, looking for the delivery of safe, healthy, functional and sustainable buildings which operate efficiently and meet users needs.

PREVIOUS POSTNEXT POST

browse latest news

Latest tweets

This month's @CRTmagazine issue features an article about how we can build back better after (and even during) this global pandemic.

#buildbackbetter #buildbackgreener #pharma #sustainability #carbonzero #pharmaceuticalindustry

Link to the article:
https://content.yudu.com/web/fiqy/0A3zgsj/Cleanroomoct20/html/index.html?dm_i=8EU%2C72M88%2CRXN14I%2CSKAU6%2C1&page=36

10 - 11th November, brings the best of the Cleanroom & Pharma industry together for Cleanroom Technology Conference Virtual!
Don't miss Keith Beattie's presentation on improving quality and compliance, whilst reducing energy consumption, emissions & cost. https://www.eeco2.com/cleanroom-technology-conference-2020/

The EECO2 team is expanding faster than ever, with many new team members this year. We pride ourselves on having a diverse and experienced team, whilst investing in the future. Meet our new EECO2 team members: https://www.eeco2.com/new-eeco2-team-members/

#team #newarrivals #universityplacement

Sign up to the knowledge hub

  • By completing this form, you confirm that we may contact you via email, that you are over the age of 16 and that we can send you periodic emails, containing useful and interesting information including our email newsletter. Please see our privacy policy for more information and to see how you can manage your consent.

  • Fields marked with an * are mandatory

Latest News

ISPE CONFERENCE MANCHESTER

2019 ISPE EUROPE PHARMA 4.0 CONFERENCE MANCHESTER

Posted on

ISPE comes to Manchester this month, with the Europe Pharma 4.0 Conference. The event will be held at Old Trafford, but there will also be site visits available, giving an insight into the reality of Pharma 4.0. With two days full of informative presentations, interactive sessions and opportunities to network, the event is expected to be a hit with industry experts, decision makers and key suppliers.

The EECO2 team will be exhibiting again this year and look forward to meeting all the delegates interested in energy efficiency and reducing carbon emissions and energy costs!

ISPE confirms that the conference will focus on:

  • How digitalisation will open new horizons to achieve new levels of being connected, with transparency, agility and more productivity due to accurate information for decision making
  • How workplaces change: “Functional Silos” will no longer be needed after digitalisation is successfully implemented
  • How pharma is driven by current industry practice and by globally connected systems: the GXP rules and technical standards will be harmonised globally, mutual recognition of inspections will grow as well as similar enforcement of global rules and standards
  • How in a Pharma 4.0 world it will be feasible to be connected, while respecting and applying different cultures and management styles?
The event will be followed by the 2019 ISPE UK Affiliate Annual Awards Dinner.

Follow EECO2 on LinkedIn to keep up to date with our event and exhibition news and our case studies.

PREVIOUS POSTNEXT POST

browse latest news

Latest tweets

This month's @CRTmagazine issue features an article about how we can build back better after (and even during) this global pandemic.

#buildbackbetter #buildbackgreener #pharma #sustainability #carbonzero #pharmaceuticalindustry

Link to the article:
https://content.yudu.com/web/fiqy/0A3zgsj/Cleanroomoct20/html/index.html?dm_i=8EU%2C72M88%2CRXN14I%2CSKAU6%2C1&page=36

10 - 11th November, brings the best of the Cleanroom & Pharma industry together for Cleanroom Technology Conference Virtual!
Don't miss Keith Beattie's presentation on improving quality and compliance, whilst reducing energy consumption, emissions & cost. https://www.eeco2.com/cleanroom-technology-conference-2020/

The EECO2 team is expanding faster than ever, with many new team members this year. We pride ourselves on having a diverse and experienced team, whilst investing in the future. Meet our new EECO2 team members: https://www.eeco2.com/new-eeco2-team-members/

#team #newarrivals #universityplacement

Sign up to the knowledge hub

  • By completing this form, you confirm that we may contact you via email, that you are over the age of 16 and that we can send you periodic emails, containing useful and interesting information including our email newsletter. Please see our privacy policy for more information and to see how you can manage your consent.

  • Fields marked with an * are mandatory

Latest News

NATIONAL HEALTHCARE EXPO

NATIONAL HEALTHCARE EXPO 2019

Posted on

The National Healthcare Expo is being held on 26th November at Marshall Arena, Milton Keynes. The event will highlight the key trends and challenges facing the sector, while also offering practical advice, as well as showcasing the latest innovations and developments in best practice. Another key theme will be technological solutions available to healthcare organisations to improve patient care whilst reducing costs.

EECO2’s Paul Waddle will be presenting at the event – at 10am – also discussing the theme of cost reduction; “Cleanroom cost, quality and environmental sustainability“.

He will discuss the many options open to cleanroom users to minimise the energy consumption and operational costs of the high energy intensive spaces. There are many efficiency improvements available to users, that have proven to have no detrimental impact on the critical product quality needs. If you would like to discuss this with Paul or receive a copy of his presentation slides, please contact us.

EECO2 will also be exhibiting at The National Healthcare Expo – STAND E10 – the team will be happy to answer any questions or discuss energy efficiency projects/issues you have.

Stay updated with more news of the event by following EECO2 on LinkedIn.

Check out EECO2’s latest Case Studies here!

PREVIOUS POSTNEXT POST

browse latest news

Latest tweets

This month's @CRTmagazine issue features an article about how we can build back better after (and even during) this global pandemic.

#buildbackbetter #buildbackgreener #pharma #sustainability #carbonzero #pharmaceuticalindustry

Link to the article:
https://content.yudu.com/web/fiqy/0A3zgsj/Cleanroomoct20/html/index.html?dm_i=8EU%2C72M88%2CRXN14I%2CSKAU6%2C1&page=36

10 - 11th November, brings the best of the Cleanroom & Pharma industry together for Cleanroom Technology Conference Virtual!
Don't miss Keith Beattie's presentation on improving quality and compliance, whilst reducing energy consumption, emissions & cost. https://www.eeco2.com/cleanroom-technology-conference-2020/

The EECO2 team is expanding faster than ever, with many new team members this year. We pride ourselves on having a diverse and experienced team, whilst investing in the future. Meet our new EECO2 team members: https://www.eeco2.com/new-eeco2-team-members/

#team #newarrivals #universityplacement

Sign up to the knowledge hub

  • By completing this form, you confirm that we may contact you via email, that you are over the age of 16 and that we can send you periodic emails, containing useful and interesting information including our email newsletter. Please see our privacy policy for more information and to see how you can manage your consent.

  • Fields marked with an * are mandatory

Latest News

GLOBAL CASE STUDY

NEW CASE STUDY – MULTI-SITE GLOBAL ENERGY REDUCTION PROGRAMME

Posted on

Our latest case study is based on a global pharmaceutical energy reduction programme. After a successful trial in Sydney, Australia, our client went on to introduce a corporate carbon and energy reduction programme globally. EECO2 worked with a further 10 of the client’s key sites, in the United States (6 sites), China (2 sites), Japan, UK and Australia.

Method: The EECO2 team conducted the on-site energy and water reduction assessment workshop events, working together with the site engineering teams and other stakeholders. The scope included a review of opportunities in HVAC systems serving all areas, utility generation & distribution (steam, chilled water, cooling water, compressed air systems) and water systems.

Results: EECO2 recommended that the client’s focus should be on rapidly implementing HVAC & BMS optimisation opportunities as these have high cost reduction, short paybacks and excellent emissions reductions. As an example, since the event took place, one site implemented optimisation of controls on several HVAC systems, which delivered $190k annual savings with a simple payback of 6 months. As well as the larger energy projects, the events identified 143 ‘Just Do Its’, which are low or no cost actions that site teams can action immediately. As well as the results below, the annual water savings identified was 47 Million Gallons, which is a 22% reduction! Projects have an average simple payback period of 3 years.

PREVIOUS POSTNEXT POST

browse latest news

Latest tweets

This month's @CRTmagazine issue features an article about how we can build back better after (and even during) this global pandemic.

#buildbackbetter #buildbackgreener #pharma #sustainability #carbonzero #pharmaceuticalindustry

Link to the article:
https://content.yudu.com/web/fiqy/0A3zgsj/Cleanroomoct20/html/index.html?dm_i=8EU%2C72M88%2CRXN14I%2CSKAU6%2C1&page=36

10 - 11th November, brings the best of the Cleanroom & Pharma industry together for Cleanroom Technology Conference Virtual!
Don't miss Keith Beattie's presentation on improving quality and compliance, whilst reducing energy consumption, emissions & cost. https://www.eeco2.com/cleanroom-technology-conference-2020/

The EECO2 team is expanding faster than ever, with many new team members this year. We pride ourselves on having a diverse and experienced team, whilst investing in the future. Meet our new EECO2 team members: https://www.eeco2.com/new-eeco2-team-members/

#team #newarrivals #universityplacement

Sign up to the knowledge hub

  • By completing this form, you confirm that we may contact you via email, that you are over the age of 16 and that we can send you periodic emails, containing useful and interesting information including our email newsletter. Please see our privacy policy for more information and to see how you can manage your consent.

  • Fields marked with an * are mandatory

Latest News

installed memu

MEMU INSTALLED IN IRELAND

Posted on

Another MEMU has been installed in a client site in Ireland. The equipment has been shipped to the pharmaceutical manufacturing site and installed, to prove energy savings of some new energy efficient filters. The MEMU will be installed before the project begins, as to record the ‘before’ energy consumption rates. The new filters will then be fitted in the AHUs, aiming to reduce energy consumption of the site. After the instillation has taken place, the MEMU will then record the granular results of energy consumption and will compare the results; proving to the client (and the filter manufacturer) just how effective the project has been, how much energy, carbon and cost they will save and how energy efficient the new filters actually are.

For more information on the MEMU, click here.

Follow EECO2 on LinkedIn for more MEMU news.

The MEMU® is an independent metering, monitoring and targeting system (MM&T). It is simple to install utilising wireless communication between sensors and can be tailored to meet a client’s specific requirements. It can be used to prove energy savings before and after a project. Data is transmitted via GSM technology to a bureau hosted by EECO2. This allows you to view dashboards and access monthly reports.

MEMU Case Studies can be found here.

PREVIOUS POSTNEXT POST

browse latest news

Latest tweets

This month's @CRTmagazine issue features an article about how we can build back better after (and even during) this global pandemic.

#buildbackbetter #buildbackgreener #pharma #sustainability #carbonzero #pharmaceuticalindustry

Link to the article:
https://content.yudu.com/web/fiqy/0A3zgsj/Cleanroomoct20/html/index.html?dm_i=8EU%2C72M88%2CRXN14I%2CSKAU6%2C1&page=36

10 - 11th November, brings the best of the Cleanroom & Pharma industry together for Cleanroom Technology Conference Virtual!
Don't miss Keith Beattie's presentation on improving quality and compliance, whilst reducing energy consumption, emissions & cost. https://www.eeco2.com/cleanroom-technology-conference-2020/

The EECO2 team is expanding faster than ever, with many new team members this year. We pride ourselves on having a diverse and experienced team, whilst investing in the future. Meet our new EECO2 team members: https://www.eeco2.com/new-eeco2-team-members/

#team #newarrivals #universityplacement

Sign up to the knowledge hub

  • By completing this form, you confirm that we may contact you via email, that you are over the age of 16 and that we can send you periodic emails, containing useful and interesting information including our email newsletter. Please see our privacy policy for more information and to see how you can manage your consent.

  • Fields marked with an * are mandatory

Latest News

2019 ISPE Annual Meeting & Expo

Posted on

The EECO2 team is looking forward to the 2019 ISPE Annual Meeting & Expo. This year the event will focus on modernization, globalization, and transformation in pharmaceutical science and manufacturing. It promises to provide pharma professionals the opportunity to ‘engage in industry-critical conversations’ with pharmaceutical and bio-pharmaceutical professionals – from young professionals to top senior executives in all areas of pharma and bio-pharma.

Modernize. Globalize. Transform.

With 6 extensive education tracks and over 85 hours of targeted technical sessions, one particular session draws the attention of EECO2…

On day 2, Monday, 28 October 2019 at 11:00-12:30, the session titled Classified Areas Best Practice in Design and Operation will take place.

This session will provide information on the following:


-The latest section of ISO 14644 – part 16 energy efficiency with a lighthearted presentation
-On the best practices for HEPA filter testing – is particle counting the answer to an engineer’s prayers?
-Best practices in the design for a cell or a gene therapy facility
-Best practices in the design of a change area – a common source of environmental monitoring excursions and regulatory observations – What does Annex 1 really want? What are the current best practices?

More information on the ISPE Annual Meeting & Expo agenda: click here

One of the speakers in this session, will be EECO2’s Keith Beattie. If you would like to discuss any of the topics included in the session, get in touch or arrange to meet Keith at the event via his LinkedIn account.

More on Keith from ISPE.

(more…)

PREVIOUS POSTNEXT POST

browse latest news

Latest tweets

This month's @CRTmagazine issue features an article about how we can build back better after (and even during) this global pandemic.

#buildbackbetter #buildbackgreener #pharma #sustainability #carbonzero #pharmaceuticalindustry

Link to the article:
https://content.yudu.com/web/fiqy/0A3zgsj/Cleanroomoct20/html/index.html?dm_i=8EU%2C72M88%2CRXN14I%2CSKAU6%2C1&page=36

10 - 11th November, brings the best of the Cleanroom & Pharma industry together for Cleanroom Technology Conference Virtual!
Don't miss Keith Beattie's presentation on improving quality and compliance, whilst reducing energy consumption, emissions & cost. https://www.eeco2.com/cleanroom-technology-conference-2020/

The EECO2 team is expanding faster than ever, with many new team members this year. We pride ourselves on having a diverse and experienced team, whilst investing in the future. Meet our new EECO2 team members: https://www.eeco2.com/new-eeco2-team-members/

#team #newarrivals #universityplacement

Sign up to the knowledge hub

  • By completing this form, you confirm that we may contact you via email, that you are over the age of 16 and that we can send you periodic emails, containing useful and interesting information including our email newsletter. Please see our privacy policy for more information and to see how you can manage your consent.

  • Fields marked with an * are mandatory

Latest News

PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING AND CLEANROOM TECHNOLOGY EVENT

Posted on


Next week EECO2’s Keith Beattie will be presenting at SMi’s pharmaceutical manufacturing and cleanroom event. On the second day of the event, 10th October,  in London’s Copthorne Tara Hotel, Keith will be discussing;


“CLEANROOM COST, QUALITY & ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY
– CAN I AFFORD TO COMPROMISE
?”


The presentation that will take place at 9:50 will discuss the many options open to cleanroom users to minimise the energy consumption and operational costs of these highly energy intensive spaces. There are many efficiency improvements available that have proven to have no detrimental impact on the critical product quality needs. Topics discussed will include:
• Practical & proven top tips you can apply today to make a real & significant improvement
• Heads up on ISO 14644 part 16
• The business case to support action – illustrated with case studies.
• Future game changing innovation in cleanroom controls



More information on the event: click here

To ask for more information about Keith’s talk: contact EECO2


PREVIOUS POSTNEXT POST

browse latest news

Latest tweets

This month's @CRTmagazine issue features an article about how we can build back better after (and even during) this global pandemic.

#buildbackbetter #buildbackgreener #pharma #sustainability #carbonzero #pharmaceuticalindustry

Link to the article:
https://content.yudu.com/web/fiqy/0A3zgsj/Cleanroomoct20/html/index.html?dm_i=8EU%2C72M88%2CRXN14I%2CSKAU6%2C1&page=36

10 - 11th November, brings the best of the Cleanroom & Pharma industry together for Cleanroom Technology Conference Virtual!
Don't miss Keith Beattie's presentation on improving quality and compliance, whilst reducing energy consumption, emissions & cost. https://www.eeco2.com/cleanroom-technology-conference-2020/

The EECO2 team is expanding faster than ever, with many new team members this year. We pride ourselves on having a diverse and experienced team, whilst investing in the future. Meet our new EECO2 team members: https://www.eeco2.com/new-eeco2-team-members/

#team #newarrivals #universityplacement

Sign up to the knowledge hub

  • By completing this form, you confirm that we may contact you via email, that you are over the age of 16 and that we can send you periodic emails, containing useful and interesting information including our email newsletter. Please see our privacy policy for more information and to see how you can manage your consent.

  • Fields marked with an * are mandatory

Latest News

EECO2 AT CPHI INDIA 2019

Posted on


After the progression of EECO2 India, the team is attending their first event. This year EECO2’s Keith Beattie and Ashutosh Gautam will be at CPhI in Delhi. Keith will be leading a session in compliance and energy efficiency.

Day 2 – 27th November 2019 – 1pm

Product safety and quality is naturally of prime importance to pharmaceutical and biotech manufacturers, and supporting clients to achieve and maintain adherence to Current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) and other internal and external regulatory requirements is a core competency of EECO2. Keith will be sharing knowledge of compliance, best practice and new technologies ensuring greater control and monitoring. He will provide guidance through the regulatory and compliance landscape, explaining how you can ensure that your facilities are operating at maximum efficiency, without compromising safety or quality.

If you would like more information on Keith’s CPhI quality session or if you would like to arrange a preliminary phone call about your site, get in touch with the team today.

To read more about the event: click here.

CPhI

“As the pharma industry looks increasingly towards India for high quality, low cost pharma solutions, CPhI & P-MEC India is the ideal event for companies wanting to pick up on the latest trends and innovations the market has to offer. At CPhI & P-MEC India, you will meet the movers and shakers from India’s pharma machinery, technology and ingredients industries, giving you a competitive advantage that will help grow your business.” CPhI

PREVIOUS POSTNEXT POST

browse latest news

Latest tweets

This month's @CRTmagazine issue features an article about how we can build back better after (and even during) this global pandemic.

#buildbackbetter #buildbackgreener #pharma #sustainability #carbonzero #pharmaceuticalindustry

Link to the article:
https://content.yudu.com/web/fiqy/0A3zgsj/Cleanroomoct20/html/index.html?dm_i=8EU%2C72M88%2CRXN14I%2CSKAU6%2C1&page=36

10 - 11th November, brings the best of the Cleanroom & Pharma industry together for Cleanroom Technology Conference Virtual!
Don't miss Keith Beattie's presentation on improving quality and compliance, whilst reducing energy consumption, emissions & cost. https://www.eeco2.com/cleanroom-technology-conference-2020/

The EECO2 team is expanding faster than ever, with many new team members this year. We pride ourselves on having a diverse and experienced team, whilst investing in the future. Meet our new EECO2 team members: https://www.eeco2.com/new-eeco2-team-members/

#team #newarrivals #universityplacement

Sign up to the knowledge hub

  • By completing this form, you confirm that we may contact you via email, that you are over the age of 16 and that we can send you periodic emails, containing useful and interesting information including our email newsletter. Please see our privacy policy for more information and to see how you can manage your consent.

  • Fields marked with an * are mandatory

Latest News

EECO2 – A GLOBAL TEAM

Posted on

As a global organisation with clients all over the world, there are times when the EECO2 team is spread right across the globe. Supporting customers from one continent to the next; separated by oceans, but maintaining the high level of customer service and great quality engineered projects across-the-board.

This week, the EECO2 team is in Ireland, performing an energy and water event; developing energy and water saving projects for a top 10 global pharma client. Meanwhile, another project team is in Croatia performing a HVAC assessment on a client site. Then there are those working in the UK, visiting customers not too far from our head office in Cheshire…

Last week, Keith Beattie (Director, EECO2) was in the USA speaking at an ISPE event (see more about that here), while the engineering team were in Spain performing an energy assessment. The client site that was established around 1975 and concentrates on tablet manufacturing, showed lots of examples of good practice and had a great and accommodating site team, which really helped the EECO2 team coordinate a successful event.

When the EECO2 team is travelling, further emphasis is placed on communication to maintain strong connections between the team. This ensures that nothing is missed, projects are controlled and managed smoothly and the close relationship within the organisation remains as strong as ever.

If you have a project you would like to talk to EECO2 about, contact us today. Or follow us on LinkedIn and Twitter to see where we go next.

fresh-air







PREVIOUS POSTNEXT POST

browse latest news

Latest tweets

This month's @CRTmagazine issue features an article about how we can build back better after (and even during) this global pandemic.

#buildbackbetter #buildbackgreener #pharma #sustainability #carbonzero #pharmaceuticalindustry

Link to the article:
https://content.yudu.com/web/fiqy/0A3zgsj/Cleanroomoct20/html/index.html?dm_i=8EU%2C72M88%2CRXN14I%2CSKAU6%2C1&page=36

10 - 11th November, brings the best of the Cleanroom & Pharma industry together for Cleanroom Technology Conference Virtual!
Don't miss Keith Beattie's presentation on improving quality and compliance, whilst reducing energy consumption, emissions & cost. https://www.eeco2.com/cleanroom-technology-conference-2020/

The EECO2 team is expanding faster than ever, with many new team members this year. We pride ourselves on having a diverse and experienced team, whilst investing in the future. Meet our new EECO2 team members: https://www.eeco2.com/new-eeco2-team-members/

#team #newarrivals #universityplacement

Sign up to the knowledge hub

  • By completing this form, you confirm that we may contact you via email, that you are over the age of 16 and that we can send you periodic emails, containing useful and interesting information including our email newsletter. Please see our privacy policy for more information and to see how you can manage your consent.

  • Fields marked with an * are mandatory

Latest News

INDIA ENERGY EFFICIENCY

EECO2 INDIA

Posted on

As EECO2 confirms a new location in India, Dr. Ashutosh Gautam (Head of Operations in Asia) continues to work closely with the UK team, maintaining and developing relationships with top pharmaceutical organisations across the region. Dr Gautam will be involved into developing  and implementing business strategy across the country. His main focus will be on business development, marketing and operations.

Since May 2019, when Dr Gautam joined the team, he has been instrumental in strengthening relationships with current customers. In conjunction with the UK Sales and Marketing team, Dr Gautam has put in place plans to participate in multiple events, including CPhI India and ISPE Bangalore. Keith Beattie will be attending the first event in November, to discuss quality and speak to the audience about energy and compliance, related to pharmaceutical manufacturing.

In the long term, EECO2 is developing plans to create a specialised Training school in India. Expanding the knowledge of the region in relation to quality and compliance.

For more information EECO2 India, contact us today or stay up to date with EECO2’s Indian events via LinkedIn.

PREVIOUS POSTNEXT POST

browse latest news

Latest tweets

This month's @CRTmagazine issue features an article about how we can build back better after (and even during) this global pandemic.

#buildbackbetter #buildbackgreener #pharma #sustainability #carbonzero #pharmaceuticalindustry

Link to the article:
https://content.yudu.com/web/fiqy/0A3zgsj/Cleanroomoct20/html/index.html?dm_i=8EU%2C72M88%2CRXN14I%2CSKAU6%2C1&page=36

10 - 11th November, brings the best of the Cleanroom & Pharma industry together for Cleanroom Technology Conference Virtual!
Don't miss Keith Beattie's presentation on improving quality and compliance, whilst reducing energy consumption, emissions & cost. https://www.eeco2.com/cleanroom-technology-conference-2020/

The EECO2 team is expanding faster than ever, with many new team members this year. We pride ourselves on having a diverse and experienced team, whilst investing in the future. Meet our new EECO2 team members: https://www.eeco2.com/new-eeco2-team-members/

#team #newarrivals #universityplacement

Sign up to the knowledge hub

  • By completing this form, you confirm that we may contact you via email, that you are over the age of 16 and that we can send you periodic emails, containing useful and interesting information including our email newsletter. Please see our privacy policy for more information and to see how you can manage your consent.

  • Fields marked with an * are mandatory